Motors and their types-Science Tutorials

The operation of a DC motor is dependent on the workings of the poles of the stator with a part of the rotor, or armature. The stator contains an even number of poles of alternating magnetic polarity, each pole consisting of an electromagnet formed from a pole winding wrapped around a pole core. When a DC current flows through the winding, a magnetic field is formed. The armature 
A cross section of a simple direct-current electric motor. At its center is the rotor, a coil wound around an iron armature, which spins within the poles of the magnet that can be seen on the inside of the casing. Photograph by Bruce Iverson. 


For Motor Concepts and their properties please see:

               
1.     Synchronous Motor


Science Photo Library, National Audubon Society Collection/Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. 
also contains a winding, in which the current flows in the direction illustrated. This armature current interacts with the magnetic field in accordance with Ampère's law, producing a torque which turns the armature.

If the armature windings were to rotate round to the next pole piece of opposite polarity, the torque would operate in the opposite direction, thus stopping the armature. In order to prevent this, the rotor contains a commutator which changes the direction of the armature current for each pole piece that the armature rotates past, thus ensuring that the windings passing, for example, a pole of north polarity will all have current flowing in the same direction, while the windings passing south poles will have oppositely flowing current to produce a torque in the same direction as that produced by the north poles. The commutator generally consists of a split contact ring against which the brushes applying the DC current ride.

The rotation of the armature windings through the stator field generates a voltage across the armature which is known as the counter EMF (electromotive force) since it opposes the applied voltage: this is the consequence of Faraday's law. The magnitude of the counter EMF is dependent on the magnetic field strength and the speed of the rotation of the armature. When the DC motor is initially turned on, there is no counter EMF and the armature starts to rotate. The counter EMF increases with the rotation. The effective voltage across the armature windings is the applied voltage minus the counter EMF.

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DC motors are more common than we may think. A car may have as many as 20 DC motors to drive fans, seats, and windows. They come in three different types, classified according to the electrical circuit used.


In the shunt motor, the armature and field windings are connected in parallel, and so the currents through each are relatively independent. The current through the field winding can be controlled with a field rheostat (variable resistor), thus allowing a wide variation in the motor speed over a large range of load conditions. This type of motor is used for driving machine tools or fans, which require a wide range of speeds.
In the series motor, the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding, resulting in a very high starting torque since both the armature current and field strength run at their maximum. However, once the armature starts to rotate, the counter EMF reduces the current in the circuit, thus reducing the field strength. The series motor is used where a large starting torque is required, such as in automobile starter motors, cranes, and hoists.
The compound motor is a combination of the series and shunt motors, having parallel and series field windings. This type of motor has a high starting torque and the ability to vary the speed and is used in situations requiring both these properties such as punch presses, conveyors and elevators.

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AC motors are much more common than the DC variety because almost all electrical supply systems run alternating current. There are three main different types of motor, namely polyphase induction, polyphase synchronous, and single phase motors. Since three phase supplies are the most common polyphase sources, most polyphase motors run on three phase. Three phase supplies are widely used in commercial and industrial settings, whereas single phase supplies are almost always the type found in the home.

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